The PAJO Details

The Power of the Pan-American Network

The Pan-American Journal of Ophthalmology

is the official publication of the Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology. The publication is particularly interested in receiving manuscripts that are short, state-of-the-art review papers that will be of interest to the practicing PAAO member ophthalmologist. In addition, to review articles, the publication is interested in articles on new surgical techniques, medical therapies, and case reports that emphasize clinicopathologic correlations.
Author Guidelines


As of January 2012, all submissions to the journal Vision Pan-America need to be uploaded electronically at through Open Journal System software. Candidates must log in as Author with username and password. To obtain username and password, please REGISTER.

If, for some reason, you are unable to access the system, please contact the Editorial Office by email at or by phone at 817-275-7553 with Terri Grassi.

All Editorial communications are done by email to the corresponding author. It is the corresponding author’s responsibility to keep all contact information (address, institution, phone number and email address) currently available updated.

Before submitting online, please have the following files ready for uploading: cover letter, copyright form(s), financial disclosure form(s), manuscript (including title page, abstract and references), tables, a separate file for each figure submitted and a separate file containing all the figure legends.

If submitting a revision, please include a response file with your answers or noted changes to the issues raised by the editor, reviewers and/or the editorial office. This file is mandatory when changes are made.

The corresponding author must discriminate all the changes, being as specific as possible (paragraph, line, reference changed). When submitting a revised file, please make sure to delete the old version and upload the revised one.

Once you “Submit to Journal Office” you will get an acknowledgment from the Editorial Office. An email will advise of the manuscript number that should be referred to in all communications regarding your submission.

Ethical Committee or IRB Approval: All papers involving human subjects, animals, or privileged health information must indicate approval by an established Institutional Review Board. They should disclaim in the body of the text the following “This study was evaluated and approved by the Institutional Review Board or Ethical Committee of (name of institution)”. In a few countries or situations where IRB is not available, the authors should confirm that the study and data collection complained with local legislation and with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (JAMA 2000;284:3043-3045).

Forms for Authors

Signatures of authors and co-authors must be original. Electronic signatures are not acceptable for legal and ethical reasons.

All the process is electronic; therefore, all forms should be scanned and uploaded with your submission. If not possible, you can fax them (with designated manuscript number and identification) to 817-275-3961 at the Journal Editorial Office on regards of Terri Grassi.

1. Authorship Criteria Statement

Vision Pan-America adheres to the Uniform Requirements set by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (more details on for authorship and to World Association of Medical Editors (WAME for editorial management. Click here to download the Authorship Criteria Statement form. To qualify for authorship, authors must make substantial contributions to the intellectual content of the paper in each of the three suggested categories:

Category 1: conception and design, data acquisition or data analysis and interpretation.

Category 2: drafting the manuscript and or critical revision of the manuscript.

Category 3: statistical analysis, obtaining funding, administrative, technical or material support, or supervision.

Vision Pan-America does not restrict the number of authors; however, in some exceptional conditions, the Editor may require that the number of authors be reduced if authorship criteria are not met.

The Corresponding Author is the person responsible for a submission and all communication with the journal regarding that submission. He must advise the editors and editorial office of the receipt of the authorship criteria forms from all authors and confirm that all authors qualify; acknowledge receipt of and upload financial disclosure and copyright forms from all authors and advise editors whether the submission was funded or not by the National or international agencies. All statement regarding study group authorship is made in the cover letter by the corresponding author. However, if he/she is not the chair, please enclose with the cover letter a statement from the study chair that the group authorship as stated on the cover page and/or members of responsible writing committee are both correct. Once a manuscript has been submitted, the order of authorship (including adding or removing authors) cannot be changed without a written request to the Editorial Office from the corresponding author. Specifically, if an author is removed, a letter from that author agreeing to his/her removal is required. The new copyright form must show the title and authors’ names in the order they should appear in print on the top of the form and include original signatures from each. If the authors are not able to agree among themselves on authorship changes, please withdraw the paper.

NOTE: Send the authorship statement as a separate file. Click here to download the form.



2. Copyright Assignment Form

The corresponding author collects all signed copyrights and submits with the manuscript or, if absolutely necessary, fax them to the editorial office at the time of the submission.

Click here to download the form, or copy and paste to the word processor, the following text:


Vision Pan-America, The Pan-American Journal of OphthalmologyTitle of the article: Author(s): Corresponding author’s full address: In consideration of the journal Vision Pan-America, taking action in reviewing and editing my (our) submission, the author(s) undersigned hereby transfers, assigns, or otherwise conveys all copyright ownership to the Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology in the event that such work is published in the journal Vision Pan-America. Such conveyance covers any product, whether print or electronic, that may derive from the published journal.

Name (print)Signature/Date 

  1. _________________________________________________________________________________
  2. __________________________________________________________________________
  3. _________________________________________________________________________________
  4. _________________________________________________________________________________
  5. _________________________________________________________________________________
  6. _________________________________________________________________________________
  7. _________________________________________________________________________________

If you have any problem, please send your questions to the Editorial Office by email at or by phone at 817-275-7553.

3. Financial Interest Disclosure

Conflict of interest exists when an author (or the author’s institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately can influence (bias) his or her actions (such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties).

Not all relationships represent true conflict of interest.

More details at ICMJE Conflict of Interest webpage at

Download the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest here.

Downloading the ICMJE form

The Conflicts of Interest form is a PDF that is made to be filled out with Adobe Acrobat Reader. Do not open the form with third-party PDF readers (this includes the Apple Preview app) and do not open the form in your browser. Instead, download the form to your desktop by right-clicking the link to the form and choosing the Save Target As… or Save Link As… command from the pop-up menu. Save the file to your desktop and then open with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Note for Mac Users: Make sure the form does not open with the Mac Preview application. Preview cannot correctly handle this form.

Guidelines for preparing a scientific manuscript for submission to VPA

Vision Pan-America adapted the following guidelines related to publications of biomedical research from the original work of influential editorial groups such as: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2010;1:42-58. World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) at Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) COPE Guidelines (including Code of Conduct; Guidelines for Retracting Articles; Ethical Editing for New Editors) at Council of Science Editors (CSE) CSE’s White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications at EQUATOR Network at


For being published in Vision Pan-America, the text of observational and experimental original articles must be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion.

Other types of articles, such as case reports, reviews, and editorials need to be formatted differently.

Double-spacing all portions of the manuscript— including the title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, individual tables, and legends to facilitate printing for reviewing and editing.

Authors should number all of the pages of the manuscript consecutively, beginning with the title page, to facilitate the editorial process.

Reporting Guidelines for Specific Study Designs

The general requirements listed in the next section relate to reporting essential elements for all study designs.

Authors are encouraged also to consult reporting guidelines relevant to their specific research design. A good source of reporting guidelines is the EQUATOR Network

A. Title Page

The title page should have the following information:

1. Article title: Authors should include all information in the title that will make electronic retrieval of the article both sensitive and specific.

2. Authors’ names and institutional affiliations: Vision Pan-America publishes only one author’s highest academic degree.

3. The name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed.

4. Contact information for corresponding authors: Name, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript.

5. If existent, source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these. 6. A running head (first author surname and initials, followed by up to four words of the title) with no more than 40 characters (including letters and spaces) at the foot of the title page.

B. Abstract

Structured abstracts (Purpose, Design, Methods, Results and Conclusions) are preferred for original research and systematic reviews.

The abstract should provide the context or background for the study and should state the study’s purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), principal conclusions, and funding sources.

Articles on clinical trials should contain abstracts that include the items that the CONSORT group has identified as essential

Vision Pan-America is a multilingual journal, publishing papers in English, Portuguese, Spanish and French; however, for indexing reason and better diffusion of the scientific information, Structured Abstracts must also be provided in English along with one in the original idiom, when other than English.

Provide five key words associated with your paper. The key words must be cited as listed in the MESH-Medical Subject Headings from the National Library of Medicine.

C. Introduction

Provide a context or background for the study (that is, the nature of the problem and its significance).

State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation; the research objective is often more sharply focused when stated as a question.

D. Methods

The Methods section should include only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was being written; all information obtained during the study belongs in the Results section.

Selection and Description of Participants

Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population.

Technical Information

Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer’s name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow others to reproduce the results.

Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well-known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give the reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.

Authors submitting review manuscripts should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data.

These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.


Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results.

When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). References for the design of the study and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated).

Specify the computer software used.

E. Results

Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations.

Do not repeat all the data in the tables or illustrations in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important observations.

Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix.

When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them.

Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess supporting data.

F. Discussion

Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them in the context of the totality of the best available evidence.

Do not repeat in detail data or other information given in the Introduction or the Results section.

For experimental studies, it is useful to begin the discussion by briefly summarizing the main findings, then explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings, compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies, state the limitations of the study, and explore the implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice. Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data. Avoid claiming priority or alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted, but label them clearly as such. G. References General Considerations Related to References Readers should be provided with direct references to original research sources whenever possible.

Avoid using abstracts as references. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as “in press” or “forthcoming”; authors should obtain written permission to cite such papers as well as verification that they have been accepted for publication. Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” with written permission from the source.

Avoid citing a “personal communication” unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text.

Editors will check the accuracy of all reference citations; thus, citation errors sometimes appear in the published version of articles. To minimize such errors, references should be verified using either an electronic bibliographic source, such as PubMed or print copies from original sources. Authors are responsible for checking that none of the references cite retracted articles except in the context of referring to the retraction.

For articles published in journals indexed in MEDLINE, the ICMJE and Vision Pan-America consider PubMed the authoritative source for information about retractions. Reference Style and Format The Uniform Requirements style for references is based largely on an American National Standards Institute style adapted by the NLM for its databases.

Authors should consult NLM’s Citing Medicine for information on its recommended formats for a variety of reference types. Authors may also consult sample references, a list of examples extracted from or based on Citing Medicine for easy use by the ICMJE audience; these sample references are maintained by NLM. References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in parentheses. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the list of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE, posted by the NLM on the Library’s Web site.

G. Tables

Type or print each table with double-spacing on a separate sheet of paper. Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each.

Do not use internal horizontal or vertical lines.

Give each column a short or an abbreviated heading. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain all nonstandard abbreviations in footnotes, and use the following symbols, in sequence:*, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, **, ††, ‡‡, §§, ||||, ¶¶, etc.

Be sure that each table is cited in the text.

H. Illustrations (Figures)

Figures should be either professionally drawn and photographed, or submitted as photographic-quality digital prints. In addition to requiring a version of the figures suitable for printing,

Vision Pan-America now ask authors for electronic files of figures in a format (for example, JPEG or GIF) that will produce high-quality images in the Web version of the journal; authors should review the images of such files on a computer screen before submitting them to be sure they meet their own quality standards. Usually, a 300 dpi picture is standard. For x-ray films, scans, and other diagnostic images, as well as pictures of pathology specimens or photomicrographs, send sharp, glossy, black-and-white or color photographic prints, usually 127 x 173 mm (5 x 7 inches) or high quality JPEG or TIFF images.Photographs of potentially identifiable people must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.

Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been cited in the text. If a figure has been published previously, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the figure. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain. PowerPoint format is not acceptable, and images embedded in word documents are not acceptable. Figures must be submitted as separated files.

Legends for Illustrations (Figures)

Type or print out legends for illustrations using double spacing, starting on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations.

Legends of figures must be submitted in a separated word format file.

I. Units of Measurement

Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples.

Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius. Drug concentrations may be reported in either SI or mass units, but the alternative should be provided in parentheses where appropriate.

J. Abbreviations and Symbols

Use only standard abbreviations. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement.

Submission Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission’s compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. The text is double-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses).
  4. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  5. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.
  6. Before submitting online, please have the following files ready for uploading: cover letter, authorship form, copyright form(s), financial disclosure form(s), manuscript (including title page, abstract and references),tables, a separate file for each figure submitted and a separate file containing all the figure legends.
  7. Make sure your picture is 300 dpi and not embedded in the main document.Must be submitted as a separate file.
Copyright Notice
Copyright Assignment Form The corresponding author is responsible for collecting all signed copyrights and submit them with the manuscript or, if absolutely necessary, fax them to the editorial office at the time of the submission.The copyright form signed by each author states that you either own the copyright or have written permission to use all the material in your article. If you are submitting any material to which you do not own the copyright, please secure permission to use the copyrighted materials (pictures, tables etc).

Go submit that research!