Evidence-Based Medicine

This course is designed for ophthalmologists, teaching them the foundations of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and its application in healthcare decision-making. Participants will learn about levels of evidence, degrees of clinical recommendation, biostatistics and different types of studies. Through varied course materials, lectures and assessments the course will provide participants with the skills and knowledge to effectively apply EBM in practice and improve patient outcomes.



Practicing evidence-based medicine is important because it ensures that healthcare providers are using the best available evidence to make decisions about patient care. This helps to ensure that patients receive the most effective and safe treatments possible. Evidence-based medicine also encourages healthcare providers to continually update their knowledge and skills, and to stay current with the latest medical research and treatments.



Intended for: ophthalmologists, ophthalmologists in training and general physicians

Format: Online and self-paced with lifetime access

Duration: Approximately 18 hours long.

Certificate: 18 hours of PAAO Continuing Medical Education on completion


At the end of the course the participants will be able to:

  • Explain the importance of EBM in Health Decision Making.
  • Apply Knowledge on Levels of Evidence and Degrees of Clinical Recommendation for Decision-making in Health.
  • Apply Basic Knowledge of Biostatistics to analyze the Materials/Methods and the Results of a Scientific Article.


  • Study guides, which facilitate the student’s learning process.
  • Audiovisual lectures, prepared by the teaching team on each topic. These will be available for online reading and in save/print version.
  • Reading material, available in Spanish and/or English in pdf format.
  • Concept maps, synoptic charts, tables, memory aids for quick reference.


Application activities are used throughout the course consisting of:

  • Multiple-choice questions
  • Open-ended, self-corrected questions with checklists
  • Question and answer forums

Each module will have a final exam that must be passed to move on to the next module. The number of attempts is unlimited, but must be passed to move on to the next module.

The activities will promote the exchange and use of students’ knowledge and experiences and will facilitate the application of new learning to professional practice.


Basic Principles of EBM:

  1. What is the MBE?
  2. Association vs Causality
  3. Pyramid Evidence.
  4. Evidence levels.
  5. Grades of Recommendation
  6. Bias Catalog

Statistics for non-statisticians:

  1. Sampling Techniques
  2. Error and Bias.
  3. Data Representation, Central Tendency and Variability.
  4. Probability and Probability Distribution.
  5. Inferential Statistics.
  6. descriptive biostatistics.
  7. Statistical Bases.

Types of Studies:

  1. Classification of the different types of Studies.
  2. Descriptive Observational Studies: Reported Cases, Case Series, Qualitative, Cross-sectional and Ecological.
  3. Analytical Observational Studies: Cohort and Case-Control Studies.
  4. Experimental Studies: Clinical Trials.
  5. Diagnostic Studies.
  6. Economic Studies.
  7. Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis.
  8. Clinical Guides.

Application of the EBM:

  1. Neutralizing pseudosciences.
  2. Training for professionals on MBE.
  3. Define the Clinically Relevant Research question.
  4. Search for the Best Available Evidence.
  5. EtD Frameworks: From Evidence to Decision.
  6. PRO: Patients Reported Outcomes.
  7. Make Shared Decisions.
  8. MBE Manifesto to Improve Health.

Criticism of EBM:

  1. Difficulties in applying the Evidence in Patient Care: Controversy in Healthcare Practice in the “Real World”.
  2. Limitation of Time and Resources.
  3. Artificial Intelligence, Big Data and MBE.
  4. Shortage of Scientific Literature on the veracity of the EBM.

Meet Your Faculty

Over 30 distinguished experts contributed to this course. Learn more about them.

PAAO Member

$60 USD

$75 USD non-member

life-time access
forum support
printable study materials

PAAO Member

$90 USD

$120 USD non-member

life-time access
forum support
printable study materials


$75 USD

USD non-member

life-time access
forum support
printable study materials

*Residents/fellows must submit a letter from their program.
**Technicians must submit a letter from an ophthalmologist.

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